On 12 December 2015, 195 countries adopted for the first time a universal agreement on climate change, committing all countries to take action. The Agreement will come into force if at least 55 countries covering 55% of emissions ratify it. Although a landmark in the fight against climate change, the agreement alone will not solve the climate crisis. The poorest and most vulnerable people in the world continue to bear the brunt of the worst impacts of climate change. Our work to help them become more resilient, and to respond and adapt to climate shocks continues. The next five years are critical for scaling up climate action across the world before the Paris Agreement comes into force in 2020, and to deliver on the promises made. The Paris Agreement responds to CARE’s five main demands for COP21
1. Drastically cut emissions from fossil fuels and speed up the transition to renewable energy to keep global warming below 1.5°C
2. Build climate resilience and adaptive capacity of the most vulnerable and marginalised people, and address the loss and damage they are facing
3. Protect the food and nutrition security of the poorest, marginalised and most vulnerable people
4. Massively scale up financial support for poorer countries and communities, and especially for vulnerable and marginalised people
5. Ensure that actions to tackle climate change advance gender equality and human rights
What’s next? The Agreement will open for signatures in April 2016. All countries are responsible for submitting their national climate action plans, 187 countries out of 196 have already done this. Stepping up national implementation is now the key task ahead, with the necessity for organisations like CARE to get involved actively in helping to meet the needs of the most vulnerable. The implementation of the Agreement will be prepared further in the coming years, and a range of technical meetings such as on loss and damage, finance or adaptation, will happen throughout 2016. CARE will engage in some of these meetings. Regular UNFCCC negotiation sessions will be held in May in Bonn and in November in Morocco (COP22). Moreover, many actions were contained in the Lima Paris Action. Agenda1 were announced prior and during the COP21 climate talks. CARE will be critically observing the implementation of these actions.
Adoption of the Paris Agreement shows political will, but its implementation will reveal how serious governments are – civil society will make sure to remind them of the commitments made in Paris.

Thousands of female farmers in Tanzania, Malawi and Uganda could escape a life of poverty if better policies were adopted to bridge a yawning gap in agricultural productivity between women and men, according to a World Bank and United Nations report. The study by the World Bank and UN Women measured the economic costs of female farmers in the three east African countries having less access to land, labour, fertiliser, crop choice and machinery that made them less productive. Previous studies have found women farmers in Africa produce between 13 percent and 25 percent less than male farmers.

"I'm very efficient when it comes to farming but since I don't have access to the land I'd need for irrigation, I often produce less as a result and the whole family suffers," said Salima Nyantole, a female farmer from Morogoro in southern Tanzania. In Tanzania, women farmers cultivate about 0.6 hectares of land on average while male farmers cultivate more than 1 hectare. Commenting on the report, Judith Kizenga, deputy director in Tanzania's ministry for Community Development Gender and children, said the government was working on a number of programmes to better balance gender equality in agriculture. "We are trying our very best to ensure that women are empowered so that they can make a meaningful contribution to the economy,"

The Tanzanian general election of 2015 will be the 5th election to be held since the restoration of multi-party system in 1992. Voters will elect the President, Members of Parliament and local government councillors. By convention, the election is held on the last Sunday of October and will be supervised by the National Electoral Commission (NEC). Political campaigns commenced on 22 August and will cease a day before the polling day.

The incumbent president, Jakaya Kikwete, is ineligible to be elected to a third term due to term limits.[4] The country's dominantruling party, the Chama Cha Mapinduzi (CCM) selected Works Minister John Magufuli as its presidential nominee; instead of the front-runner former Prime Minister Edward Lowassa. After failing to secure the ruling party's nomination, Lowassa defected to an opposition party that once labelled him as "one of the most corrupt figures in Tanzanian society." This year's election is the most competitive and unpredictable in the nation's history. Voters will select the fifth President and his/her running mate as the Vice President of Tanzania.

All eligible voters were registered using the Biometric Voters’ Register (BVR) kits. In June 2015, the National Bureau of Statistics (NBS) estimated that were 24,252,927 eligible voters based on the adjusted national population census. By 2 August, NEC succeeded in registering 24,001,134 voters. The Tanzanian Diaspora will not be able to vote in this election.

A new constitution was expected to have been adopted before the general election via a referendum that had been postponed. The final draft of the proposed constitution includes the establishment of an independent electoral commission and will allow dissatisfied candidates to challenge the results in the High Court within seven days of the pronouncement. Chief Justice Mohamed Chande Othman has said the judiciary was prepared to handle all cases pertaining to the results of the forthcoming election.

Article 39(1) of the 1977 Constitution stipulates the following qualifications for a person to be elected as President:

a) he is a citizen by birth in accordance with the citizenship law;

b) he has attained the age of forty years;

c) he is a member of, and a candidate nominated by, a political party;

d) he is qualified to be [an] MP or a Member of the House of Representatives;

e) he has not been convicted by any court for any offence relating to tax evasion.

The proposed constitution adds the following criteria: both parents of the candidate ought to be citizens by birth; the candidate be of sound mind and either holds a Bachelor's degree or has skill and experience in leadership at the national level; and may also be a private candidate. The winning candidate will have to obtain more than 50% of all the votes cast; otherwise a runoff will be held within 60 days.

The semi-autonomous archipelago of Zanzibar elects its own President and members to its Zanzibar House of Representatives. The Zanzibar Electoral Commission (ZEC) has declared 25 October as the election date. So on that day people will vote for 2 presidents: one for the Union and one for Islands.

The poorest half of the world’s population - 3.5 billion people - is responsible for just 10 percent of carbon emissions, despite being the most threatened by the catastrophic storms, droughts, and other severe weather shocks linked to climate change. These are the findings of a new Oxfam report, released during the ongoing climate talks in Paris, which also shows the world’s richest 10 percent produce around half of all emissions.

The Oxfam report, “Extreme Carbon Inequality,” provides new estimates of the lifestyle consumption emissions of rich and poor citizens in different countries. While negotiators might be working to reach an agreement based on the total emissions produced by their respective countries, this analysis helps dispel the myth that citizens in rapidly developing countries are somehow most to blame for climate change. While emissions are rising fastest in developing countries, much of this is for the production of goods consumed in other countries, meaning that the emissions associated with the lifestyle of the vast majority of their citizens are still far lower than their counterparts in developed countries.

Oxfam’s head of food and climate policy, Tim Gore, said: “Climate change and economic inequality are inextricably linked and together pose one of the greatest challenges of the 21st century. Paris must be the start of building a more human economy for all – not just for the ‘haves,’ the richest and highest emitters, but also the ‘have-nots,’ the poorest people who are the least responsible for and most vulnerable to climate change.”

Number 159

The UN Tanzania 2014 Human Development Report ranks Tanzania at 159 among 187 countries in the human development index. The economic development of Tanzania which we are so proud of has not benefitted the people at all.Particularly disturbing is thenutritional status of citizens. Malnutrition reduces labour productivity and income potential and results in losses to the country’s economy.   It is estimated that 35 per cent of children under five in the country are chronically malnourished. The report proposes national development plans to be people centred and focus economic development strategies on poor Tanzanians. It serves the nation no purpose to claim economic achievement when the people continue to wrangle in poverty. Villages have no clean and safe water, they have no electricity and in 2015 when the world has sent crafts to Mars and other planets Tanzanian farmers are still nursing blisters from hand hoe farming.